Abstract: The truckers’ convoy protest with up to 4,000 trucks for three weeks in Ottawa quieted down after joint police force interfered under the emergency order, though governments wasted time arguing over jurisdiction and failed to take the protest seriously at first. The background of the organizers is not so clear with many from Alberta or Saskatchewan. They opposes a vaccine mandate for truckers crossing the US-Canada border, but eventually the protest became about a broader opposition to pandemic restrictions and the present Federal government. The fundraiser had raised more than C$10 million from approximately 120,000 donors, in which the majority was from the US, with public support from political leaders including former U.S. president Donald Trump as well as Tesla CEO Elon Musk. Daily municipal policing costs in Ottawa jumped to $2.5 million, which are 5 times the security costs for Canada Day celebrations, and more than C$1 billion were lost in trade between the US and Canada. Great efforts have been made to prevent the epidemic, but the behavior of the "Freedom Convoy" is deemed a damage to these efforts and an insult to Indigenous communities. Some of the observers assert, though strange, most of the economic harms or personal attacks were mandated by some U.S provincial and municipal authorities. The organizers of the convoy protest have prepared vehicles, funds, and social media support but possibly not for a following class action for damages in a civil suit. Though the truckers’ convoy protest was initiated by a very small number of people, it could have significant impacts on the government. Governing a nation is like cooking a fish. If a nation is governed by Tao, the virtues in each party will refresh all.
Key Words: Convoy Protest; Freedom; Vaccines; the Emergencies Act
1. General Situation
The truckers’ convoy protest with up to 4,000 trucks for three weeks in Ottawa quieted down after joint police force interfered under the emergency order. However, a Rebel woman reporter Alexa Lavoie was said to beaten by a wooden stick 3 times and was shot point-blank with a tear gas canister resulting in a very painful damage to her when the ground was cleared[i]. Ottawa Police confirmed that two protesters "did collide with the horses" but they were said to have got up and have resumed their protest though it was not mentioned whether a senior disabled woman was trampled or whether a bike was thrown into the horses[ii]. As the emergency order had been declared already by the cabinet, a vote to confirm the decision was set for the evening of 21 Feb 2022. Since Liberals and New Democrats had enough votes between them to approve it, the motion to extend the Emergencies Act was approved in the House of Commons with 185 against 151 though the Conservatives and the Bloc Québécois opposed it. The vote to approve the measures will keep them in place until mid-March at the latest and the Senate must also vote on the government’s request[iii]. According to Aaron Wherry of CBC News, the Emergencies Act is not the War Measures Act. The actions authorized in 2022 do not approach the level of those the country witnessed in 1970. Justin Trudeau is not wielding a sledgehammer, which was said being used by his father to end the October Crisis in 1970[iv]. Actually, at a press conference he promised that there would be no use of the army, no suspension of the Charter of Human Rights and no restrictions on freedom of expression and assembly, and that the Parliament would need to vote on any measures the bill would impose on the police[v]. The Governor General signed off on the revocation on the afternoon of February 23, 2022, which formally ended the state of emergency, after Trudeau said existing laws and bylaws were then sufficient to keep people safe and revoked the use of the Emergencies Act after consulting with police services across Canada while the Senate was still debating[vi]. The act had never been used since it was passed by Parliament in 1988, which gave authorities sweeping temporary powers, including the ability to freeze the bank accounts and credit cards of protesters and banning all unlawful assembly attendance. As a matter of fact, credit should be given to the police. It took 3 days to arrest nearly 200 people to disperse a crowd staying for 3 weeks without a shot fired. The tremendous failures of government and order maintenance beforehand have decreased trust in democratic institutions.
Many of Canada’s truck drivers think that the protesters’ actions — including shutting down cross-border trade and laying siege to the capital — have hurt rather than helped drivers in the industry, and failed to advance the labor issues most truckers care about. They point out that only a small percentage of Canadian truckers have joined the demonstrations, and the vast majority of drivers are already vaccinated, according to trucking associations and Canadian authorities. “These illegal blockades have had a detrimental impact on our members and customers’ businesses. These have also had a very significant negative impact upon our professional driving community,” the president of the Canadian Trucking Alliance, Stephen Laskowski, said in a statement on 14 Feb 2022[vii]. 54% of Canadians who participated in an Ipsos poll believe that people taking part in the protests do not “deserve any of our sympathy” and that what they “have said and done is wrong.” The Maru Public Opinion survey found that 64% of respondents agreed with the statement that Canadian democracy is threatened by a group of protesters and must be stopped immediately. Similarly, 64% supported the use of the military to tow away protesters' trucks[viii]. However, some people joined in by expressing their concern about the future of the economy and the cost of living, with the poll showing 59% of Conservative voters agree with the frustration expressed by the convoy protesters[ix]. A survey by Leger, a Canadian polling agency, showed that 18-34-year-olds are most likely to support demonstrations, while those aged 55 and over are mostly opposed; from the perspective of regional distribution, Alberta has the highest rate of support for demonstrations Province (40%), with the highest disapproval rate in British Columbia (65%)[x].
NDP leader Singh asked his Conservative counterpart Bergen if she regretted "endorsing a convoy that is attacking the fundamental democracy of our country" and "an occupation that is harassing citizens." In Singh's view, Parliament arrived at this point because of a "failure of leadership." Governments, he said, wasted time arguing over jurisdiction or failed to take the protest seriously at first, while police abandoned the public. It's possible the Emergencies Act never would have been required had municipal or provincial authorities done more or acted faster. Though Trudeau insisted the Liberal government was present to assist other levels of government from the start, maybe federal officials didn't do something they should have done[xi].
Here is some of the information of the protest.
The organizers of the original mid-January crowdsourced fundraising campaign, "Freedom Convoy", on GoFundMe—first, Tamara Lich, a 49-year-old married woman from Alberta, secretary and one of the Board of Directors of Maverick Party, and later Benjamin J. Dichter, are not long-haul truckers. Lich was charged with counselling to commit mischief in connection with the protests. Dichter is a self-described “equal privileges advocate” who was once a jewel etcher. As indicated by the article distributed in 2014, he is a money manager, a proprietor of an advanced printing administration. He once ran for the councilor of Ward 27 (Toronto Center-Rosedale) as a Conservative competitor. It is not sure if he has been arrested. Another leader, Pat King, a 44-year-old man from Red Deer of Alberta faces charges of mischief, counselling to commit mischief, counselling to commit the offence of disobeying a court order and counselling to obstruct police. Another major organizer, Chris Barber, Barber, who owns a trucking company and a farm in Swift Current of Saskatchewan, is arrested and jailed on charges of mischief and obstruct police[xii].
The protests began with a truck convoy heading to Ottawa to oppose a vaccine mandate for truckers crossing the US-Canada border, but eventually became about a broader opposition to pandemic restrictions and Mr. Trudeau's government[xiii].
Fundraising started on January 14, 2022, through the crowdsourced fundraising platform GoFundMe. Listed as organizers were Tamara Lich, secretary of the Maverick Party, and B. J. Dichter, a 2015 federal Conservative Party candidate now associated with the People's Party of Canada. The Maverick Party has denied involvement in the convoy and said it was not the recipient of any funds raised。
On January 27, GoFundMe released the initial CA$1 million of the funds after the organizers have provided a distribution plan. On February 2, GoFundMe flagged the fundraiser for review and paused donations, saying it was investigating to ensure the fundraiser was in compliance with the platform's terms of service. The fundraiser had raised CA$10,096,500 from approximately 120,000 donors. On February 3, a Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Public Safety and National Security voted to call on GoFundMe officials to testify before the Standing Committee, to respond to concerns about the origin of the funds raised and to ensure they would not be used to "promote extremism". Members of Parliament also called on the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada (FINTRAC), Canada's financial intelligence agency, to appear before the committee. CBC News reported that a third of the donations were anonymous or used false names, and that commenters on the fundraiser claimed to be from the United States, United Kingdom, and other countries.
On the evening of February 4, GoFundMe removed the campaign permanently for violating their terms of service.
A convoy fundraiser on the fundraising website GiveSendGo, launched after the GoFundMe removal, attracted over $8.2 million as of February 10.
The Attorney General of Ontario sought and was granted a Ontario Superior Court of Justice court order against GiveSendGo to freeze the funds collected from two campaigns, "Freedom Convoy 2022"—US$8.4 million and "Adopt-a-Trucker"—over $686,000, and prohibit their distribution. The court order binds "any and all parties with possession or control over these donations". As they were investigating Freedom Convoy's fundraising, the parliamentary standing committee members voted on February 10 to include a study of the "rise of ideologically motivated extremism". The Standing Committee invited GiveSendGo to testify.
By February 19, at least 76 bank accounts linked to the protests totalling CA$3.2 million were frozen under the Emergencies Act. Conservative MPs have made claims that constituents have had their accounts frozen for small donations, such as the purchase of a convoy t-shirt.
Of the 92,845 donations, 55.7% of donors were from the United States and 39% from Canada. Many of the American donor's names correspond to the names of Donald Trump donors. The hack also revealed that one $90,000 donation came from American software billionaire Thomas Siebel. Politico reported that American right-wing commentators Dan Bongino and Ben Shapiro were among those directing support to the Canadian movement's crowdfunding websites.
With the Emergencies Act invoked, all crowdfunding platforms or payment providers hosting fundraising related to the convoy are required to register with the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada. Banks will be able to freeze accounts of those suspected to be involved in the blockades.
2. Economic Impacts
According to Dalhousie University researcher Sylvain Charlebois, 45 per cent of all agri-food imports to Ontario come across the Ambassador Bridge, and that bridge was closed for at least a week, with $360 million in lost trade for each day according to Reuters. Ford, General Motors and Toyota all announced having to shut down or delay vehicle production last week, due to the blockades. Such delays could exacerbate inflation on the price of new cars[xv]. As Rideau Centre had to be closed, those impacted include thousands of employees and 175 businesses within the mall, which is the largest in the nation’s capital. Municipal policing costs jumped to $2.5 million, which are 5 times the security costs for Canada Day celebrations[xvi].
The convoy protest has attracted public support from political leaders including former U.S. president Donald Trump as well as Tesla CEO Elon Musk. Despite GoFundMe’s decision to freeze $9 million of the $10 million raised for the movement, Lander says its popularity should serve as a wake-up call to Canadians[xvii] who perhaps thought divisive populist politics was exclusively an American phenomenon.
3. Lessons from the Truckers Convoy Protest
There are many lessons we can learn from this protest. As a matter of fact, the Liberal Government narrowly passed a confidence crisis.
1) Freedom has its boundary
According to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, everyone has the following fundamental freedoms: (a) freedom of conscience and religion; (b) freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication; (c) freedom of peaceful assembly; and (d) freedom of association[xviii]. Here we have the freedom of association and the one of peaceful assembly, which can mean that the residents should not be interfered nor the transportation. Freedom has its boundaries, and the right of one individual to no masking should not intrude upon the right of another to masking. Freedom has its environment, and the freedom in Asia is certainly different from the one in North America as laws, regulations and customs are different. Freedom can have different context from different groups. While the right and interests of a minority should be respected, those of the majority must be protected.
In the face of the protracted "truck siege", it was the Aboriginal groups who were the first to say "no". Bobby Cameron, chief of the Federation of Sovereign Indigenous Nations (FSIN), an Aboriginal group in Saskatchewan, said that the Aboriginal community has made great efforts to prevent the epidemic, but the behavior of the "Freedom Convoy" is a damage to these efforts and an insult to Indigenous communities. “This convoy is an insult to our Chiefs, our communities, and to the hundreds of loved ones we’ve lost through this pandemic. Not only are these protesters risking lives and spreading false information, but they’re also disrespecting our traditional drums, pipes, and medicines,” he said[xix]. In addition, some people believe that the government and the police were able to respond quickly in the previous demonstrations for the rights of indigenous people, but they were unable to fight against the "freedom convoy", and there was an obvious double standard.
2) Policies should be consistent based on scientific decision-making
As Lao Tzu says, governing a nation is like cooking a fish. Too much turning may overdo it. It takes art and wisdom to govern a nation, and a consistent and continued policy will be more welcome. The water can carry a boat, so can it turn over the boat.
3) There will not be waves without a wind
A patient needs to find the cause to his disease to cure it, and you need to weed to removing the roots. Therefore, it takes an integrated systematic way to solve a problem you have ever come across.
Stories of vandalism, of a fire set in a nearby apartment building as doors were taped shut, and singling out Asians, women, and other visible minorities for targeted abuse around the wearing of masks, are still circulating. There is something exquisitely painful about a protest in which barbecues and hot tubs and saunas and pig roasts are signifiers of the fact that wherever you go, so long as you are white, you are at home.
Some organizers have connections to anti-Islam movements, to Canadian separatist and right-wing groups, but it’s hard to determine precisely who were behind such a great protest.
As put by an observer, when the Unite the Right rally happened in Charlottesville in 2017, some elements were felt deeply familiar: the advance security warnings that were missed or downplayed; a collapse of the structures of city and law enforcement, which further eroded trust in those institutions from all sides. Strange enough, most of the economic harms or personal attacks were mandated by the U.S. government or provincial and municipal authorities, not the Canadian government[xx]. The author believes the force behind may be some US conglomerates and some US right-wing politicians.
4) It is easier to break a fortress from inside
People may wonder how things have got so far, and where are the governments when the truckers are travelling. Here we have another lesson, a good family is a harmonious one in which everyone agrees with each other and in which the problems can be solved peacefully by negotiation whenever there is a disagreement. The discord between some provinces and the Federal Government may have paved the way for the truckers to Ottawa.
Former US President Donald Trump immediately expressed his support for "righteous truck drivers"; representatives of the US right-wing forces, Ben Shapiro, Michael Flynn, etc. also forwarded supporting articles. Texas Senator Ted Cruz and Fox News host Tucker Carlson went on and on, praising Canadian truck drivers as "heroes."[xxi]
As the crisis appeared to heat up in Ottawa, the premiers of two Canadian provinces and 16 U.S. governors sent a letter to Trudeau and U.S. President Joe Biden calling on them to end their nations' requirements that truckers crossing the border be vaccinated[xxii].
5) Fight the fire when it is still small
It can be seen that the police in Toronto have coped with the convoy better as they are prepared and they have acted in advance. Similarly, the situation may be quite different from the present one if it could be interfered long before.
At the beginning, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and his federal government ministers and aides tried their best to compare the "truck siege" to "anti-vaccine", and made a clear "no negotiation, no compromise" position[xxiii]. The "Freedom Convoy" demonstrators argued that their original intention of launching the "truck siege" was dissatisfaction with the government's "too severe" epidemic prevention measures affecting the livelihood of the industry.
On February 8, the "Toronto Star" published an article by Kevin Lynch, former clerk of the Privy Council of Canada, vice chairman of BMO, and Paul Deegan, senior official of CN Rail, sternly criticizing Canadian governments at all levels for their poor response to the demonstrations. The article pointed out that when the "Freedom Convoy" attempted to enter Ottawa at the end of January, the authorities hastily allowed it to set up camp in RCGT Park and carried out a lassez-faire policy[xxiv].
Trudeau’s decision came amid growing frustration with government inaction. Ottawa Police Chief Peter Sloly lost his job this week after he failed to move decisively against the demonstrators[xxv].
6) A crowning victory is one in which the other party surrenders itself without fighting
Normally, when one party’s interests are hurt, it will likely challenge the other for a fight. However, if they can be reimbursed for their damage, or if they have found that there is no way to win the other party, they may just give up the fight.
7) Always foresee the consequences before you proceed to do something
Many times parents would make a lot of preparations for kid to attend an event. They may prepare enough winter clothes, Band-Aids, and many other things for them to go skiing somewhere. The organizers of the convoy protest have prepared vehicles, funds, and social media support. However, they may not have prepared for a class action after them, in addition to police criminal charges.
The demonstration may be over but the lead plaintiff in a class-action lawsuit against the “Freedom Convoy” in downtown Ottawa says she still is planning to hold participants to account. The lawsuit on behalf of residents and businesses is looking for more than $300 million in damages from truckers and donors. The lead plaintiff says that honking is not just like a car beep but something well over 100 decibels of blaring horns that are blasting your ears at levels that can cause deafness and hearing damage instantly. They knowingly caused the damages as adults and ignored the local warnings. Those protestors even arrested may also have to face civil litigation as well. Damages will be sought from donors to the convoy, demonstrators, a Bitcoin expert who has helped the demonstrators, as well as protest organizers. The lead plaintiff would also like to see an inquiry, arguing politicians and police departments failed because things never would have gotten as bad as they did — if the law was upheld[xxvi]. There is a Chinese saying, when a mantis catches a cicada, an oriole is behind. Is she the oriole?
Though the truckers’ convoy protest was initiated by a very small number of people, it could have significant impacts on the government. Governing a nation is like cooking a fish, and if a nation is governed by Tao, the virtues in each party will refresh all[xxvii].
尽管政府在管辖权问题上浪费了时间，并且起初没有认真对待抗议活动，在联合警察力量根据紧急命令进行干预后，渥太华多达 4,000 辆卡车的车队抗议持续三周后平静了下来。许多来自阿尔伯塔省或萨斯喀彻温省的组织者的背景并不十分清楚。他们反对为穿越美加边境的卡车司机强制接种疫苗，但最终抗议变成了更广泛地反对流行病限制和现任联邦政府。筹款活动已从大约 120,000 名捐助者那里筹集了超过 1000 万加元，其中大多数筹款来自美国，并得到了包括美国前总统唐纳德·特朗普在内的政治领导人和特斯拉首席执行官埃隆·马斯克的公开支持。渥太华的每日市政警务费用跃升至 250 万加元，是加拿大国庆日庆祝活动安保费用的 5 倍，而美国和加拿大之间的贸易损失超过 10 亿加元。虽然人们为预防疫情做出了巨大努力，但“自由车队”的行为被认为是对这些努力的损害和对土著社区的侮辱。有观察家声称，虽然奇怪，但是大多数经济损害或人身攻击是由美国一些省市当局授权的。车队抗议活动的组织者为抗议准备好了车辆、资金和社交媒体支持，但可能不会想到会有随后的有关损害赔偿的民事集体诉讼。尽管卡车司机的车队抗议活动是由极少数人发起的，但它可能会对政府产生重大影响。治大国如烹小鱼。以道治国，则各派之德皆能焕然一新。
[i] Hannah Grossman: Rebel News journalist: I was assaulted by Ottawa police at point-blank range, Fox News, 22 Feb 2022. For more details please take your time to view the report by clicking: https://www.foxnews.com/media/rebel-news-journalist-says-assaulted-ottawa-police-point-blank-range.
[ii] UPDATE: Woman reportedly injured in interaction with officer on horseback at Ottawa protest, SIU investigating, CityNews Ottawa, 20 Feb 2022. Please refer to the article at: https://ottawa.citynews.ca/police-beat/woman-injured-officer-horseback-ottawa-protest-5084656.
[iii] Catherine Lévesque: Motion to extend Emergencies Act approved in House of Commons, National Post, 21 Feb 2022. Please check the following website for your reference: https://nationalpost.com/news/canada/mps-to-vote-tonight-on-whether-emergencies-act-for-blockades-still-needed.
[iv] Aaron Wherry: It's no sledgehammer — but for Trudeau, the Emergencies Act could turn out to be just as heavy, CBC News, 17 Feb 2022. Please refer to the following article: https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/trudeau-emergencies-act-convoy-vaccine-protest-1.6356012.
[v] Justin Tang: Why did Trudeau invoke a state of emergency as the Freedom Caravan protest entered its third week (in Chinese)? RCI, 15 Feb 2022. Please check the following website: https://ici.radio-canada.ca/rci/zh-hans/新闻/1862547/-分析-加拿大自由车队大游行抗议进入第三周-特鲁多为何启动紧急状态法-.
[vii] Claire Parker: Canadian truck drivers distance themselves from ‘Freedom Convoy’ protests, Washington Post, 16 Feb 2022. Please avail yourself of the opportunity to read the article: https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2022/02/16/canada-trucker-distancing-protests/.
[viii] Justin Tang: Why did Trudeau invoke a state of emergency as the Freedom Caravan protest entered its third week (in Chinese)? RCI, 15 Feb 2022. Please check the following website: https://ici.radio-canada.ca/rci/zh-hans/新闻/1862547/-分析-加拿大自由车队大游行抗议进入第三周-特鲁多为何启动紧急状态法-.
[ix] Aya Al-Hakim: 46% of Canadians sympathize with trucker convoy, but many disagree with their tactics: poll, Global News, 11 Feb 2022. Please take your time to read the article: https://globalnews.ca/news/8610727/ipsos-poll-trucker-convoy-support-ottawa-canada/.
[x] Let this article tell you why Canadian truck drivers are angry (in Chinese), Lookout, February 11, 2022, https://info.51.ca/news/canada/2022-02/1070941.html.
[xi] Aaron Wherry: It's no sledgehammer — but for Trudeau, the Emergencies Act could turn out to be just as heavy, CBC News, 17 Feb 2022. Please check the following website for your reference: https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/trudeau-emergencies-act-convoy-vaccine-protest-1.6356012.
[xii] Please refer to Note iii; Stephanie Taylor: Convoy protests: King, Lich to remain in custody as bail hearing moved to Tuesday, Global News, 19 Feb 2022, https://globalnews.ca/news/8633070/lich-king-appear-court-ottawa-police-clearing-convoy/; Gary Dimmock: ‘Freedom Convoy’ leader says he just wants to go home after spending night in jail, North Bay Nugget, 18 Feb 2022. Please check the following website for your reference: https://www.nugget.ca/news/local-news/freedom-convoy-leader-says-he-just-wants-to-go-home-after-spending-night-in-jail/wcm/b9b011eb-89a7-4a9d-9ae1-ce04db1076ae#:~:text=%E2%80%9CFreedom%20Convoy%E2%80%9D%20leader%20Chris%20Barber,of%20mischief%20and%20obstruct%20police.
[xiii] Canada protests: Police arrest leaders of trucker convoy, BBC News, 18 Feb 2022.
[xiv] Canada Convoy Protest, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada_convoy_protest, accessed on 21 Feb 2022.
[xv] Mike Winters: The ‘Freedom Convoy’ trucker protests have worsened supply chain issues — here’s what you need to know, CNBC, 17 Feb 2022. Please take your time to read the article: https://www.cnbc.com/2022/02/17/freedom-convoy-trucker-protests-worsened-us-supply-chain-issues.html.
[xvi] Anne Gaviola: Economic impacts of trucker convoy protests could be felt for months, experts warn, Global News, 8 Feb 2022. Please check the following website for your reference: https://globalnews.ca/news/8602966/freedom-convoy-economic-impact/.
[xvii] Anne Gaviola: Economic impacts of trucker convoy protests could be felt for months, experts warn, Global News, 8 Feb 2022. Please check the following website for your reference: https://globalnews.ca/news/8602966/freedom-convoy-economic-impact/.
[xviii] Government of Canada: Constitution Act, 1982, Clause 2 of Part I. Please refer to the website: https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/const/page-12.html.
[xix] Nick Pearce: 'This convoy is an insult': Federation of Sovereign Indigenous Nations, Saskatoon StarPhoenix, 3 Feb 2022. Please click the following link for your informed reference: https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/this-convoy-is-an-insult-federation-of-sovereign-indigenous-nations
[xx] DAHLIA LITHWICK: What They Won in Ottawa, Slate, 23 Feb 2022, https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2022/02/ottawa-freedom-convoy-truckers-protest.html.
[xxi] Let this article tell you why Canadian truck drivers are angry (in Chinese), Lookout, February 11, 2022, https://info.51.ca/news/canada/2022-02/1070941.html.
[xxii] Rob Gillies and Wilson Ring: Police ticketing, warning truckers to leave Canada's capital, Japan Today, 17 Feb 2022. For more details please click the following link for your reference: https://japantoday.com/category/world/police-ticketing-warning-truckers-to-leave-canada's-capital.
[xxiii] Rachel Aiello: Prime Minister Trudeau comments on whether military could be called over convoy protest, CTV News, 3 Feb 2022. Please click the following link for your reference: https://www.ctvnews.ca/politics/prime-minister-trudeau-comments-on-whether-military-could-be-called-over-convoy-protest-1.5766398.
[xxiv] Kevin Lynch and Paul Deegan: Ottawa is under siege. Let’s learn the lessons, Toronto Star, 8 Feb 2022. For more details please click the following link for your reference: https://www.thestar.com/opinion/contributors/2022/02/08/ottawa-is-under-siege-lets-learn-the-lessons.html
[xxv] Rob Gillies and Wilson Ring: Police ticketing, warning truckers to leave Canada's capital, Japan Today, 17 Feb 2022. For more details please click the following link for your reference: https://japantoday.com/category/world/police-ticketing-warning-truckers-to-leave-canada's-capital.